Category: Science

Life In Zero G: 5 Things That Happen To Your Body When You’re In Space For A Month Or More

For humans, life in space is a fascinating and thrilling experience. But prolonged exposure to zero gravity can have profound effects on the body. From changes in bone density to muscle atrophy, the lack of gravity in space can significantly impact a person’s physical and mental health. 

Today, we will explore five things that happen to your body when you’re in space for a month or more, including how your muscles and bones adapt to zero gravity, the effects on your cardiovascular system, and the challenges of maintaining a healthy diet and sleep schedule. We will also discuss the implications of these changes for long-term space travel and the future of human exploration beyond our planet.

1. Bones Become Brittle and Weak

In microgravity, your bones don’t need to bear any weight at all. As a result, they become weaker over time and can even start to break down—mostly due to calcium loss and reduced stress on the bones. According to NASA, astronauts lose up to 1-2% of their bone mass each month they are in space.

2. Muscles Begin To Atrophy

When you spend months living in a zero-G environment, your muscles don’t need to exert much force to move around. As a result, many astronauts experience muscle atrophy—especially in their legs and arms, which aren’t used as much as they would be on Earth.

3. The Cardiovascular System Changes

Without gravity pushing down on you all the time, your heart doesn’t need to work nearly as hard as it does back home. This can cause serious issues for astronauts who return from lengthy missions since their bodies aren’t used to the gravitational pull that suddenly comes along with landing back on Earth.

4. Red Blood Cells Are Affected

Studies show that red blood cells tend to decrease during long periods spent in space—they actually take on different shapes than they do while living on Earth! Some studies suggest this could lead to an increased risk of heart disease after returning back home from extended missions in space.

5. Fluid Shifts Occur In The Brain

Like everything else inside our bodies, fluids shift and change while living in zero gravity as well—but particularly within the brain itself! Scientists believe this has something to do with an increase of electrolytes outside cell walls which causes fluid shifts within the brain itself leading to cognitive changes like confusion and disorientation––something which may be permanent for those who spend too long away from home!

Could You Handle Astronaut Training? 5 Things You’ll Need To Get Ready For

If you’ve ever dreamed of being an astronaut, you might be wondering what it takes to get into space and be ready for the rigorous training that astronauts go through. Becoming a successful astronaut isn’t just about having cutting-edge technological skills—it’s also about having the right mindset and knowing your limits. Here are five things you’ll need to prepare for before even thinking about becoming an astronaut:

Mental Preparedness

Astronauts must be mentally prepared for life in space, both mentally and emotionally. They need to be strong-willed, able to handle stress, and resilient under pressure. It’s important to have a good attitude toward any problems that arise in order to remain focused on the mission.

Physical Fitness

One of the most important aspects of astronaut training is physical fitness. Astronauts must pass rigorous tests in areas such as strength, endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, and agility in order to qualify for future missions.


In addition to physical challenges, astronauts must have a well-rounded education in science, math, and engineering disciplines that will help them do their jobs effectively when they’re off the ground. You’ll need an understanding of computers as well as physics and other fundamental sciences during your training process.

Problem-Solving Skills

You don’t know what type of problem you might encounter while in space so it’s essential that astronauts have strong problem-solving skills in order to figure out solutions quickly and efficiently without risking lives or equipment failure due to mistakes or poor decisions making on their part.

Psychological Resilience

It’s hard being away from family members for long stretches at a time which can cause psychological issues like depression or lack of motivation if not handled properly by astronauts themselves with proper medical advice. Having a firm sense of self-confidence can help stave off any psychological issues during long periods away from home since astronauts are ultimately responsible for their own morale aboard the spacecraft they’re traveling on along with other crew members they’ll come across while traveling into deep space.

Space exploration is an incredible opportunity but requires serious dedication and commitment from those who wish to pursue it; make sure you’re well-prepared before setting off on this journey!

5 Essential Tips for Scoring Well in O-Level Physics Exams

O-Level Physics is a challenging subject that requires a deep understanding of concepts and the ability to apply them to solve problems. Scoring well in O-Level Physics exams requires a lot of hard work and dedication, but with the right approach, you can achieve great results. Today we will discuss five essential tips for scoring well in O-Level Physics exams. 

Master the Basics 

The first step to scoring well in O-Level Physics is to master the basics. This means understanding the fundamental concepts and principles that underlie the subject. Start by reading your textbook and class notes carefully and making sure you understand all the key ideas. If you have any doubts, clarify them with your teacher or tutor. Practice solving simple problems to reinforce your understanding of these basic concepts. Once you have a strong foundation, you will find it easier to tackle more complex problems. 

Practice, Practice, Practice 

Physics is a subject that requires a lot of practice. The more problems you solve, the better you will get at applying your knowledge to real-world situations. Make sure you work through as many practice problems as possible. Try to solve problems from previous years’ exams and past papers to get a sense of the kind of questions you can expect. Practice also helps you to build confidence and reduces the likelihood of making silly mistakes. 

Focus on Understanding 

One of the common mistakes that students make when studying for O-Level Physics exams is memorizing formulas and concepts without really understanding them. This approach may help you to score some marks, but it will not help you to achieve top grades. Instead, focus on understanding the underlying principles and concepts. This will help you to think critically and apply your knowledge to solve unfamiliar problems. When you understand a concept, you can remember it better and apply it to solve more complex problems. 

Learn to Draw Clear and Accurate Diagrams 

Physics is a visual subject, and diagrams are an essential tool for understanding and solving problems. Make sure you practice drawing clear and accurate diagrams of the concepts and problems you are studying. This will help you to visualize the situation and identify the key variables involved. In addition, drawing diagrams will help you to communicate your ideas clearly in your exam answers. Remember that examiners often award marks for clear and accurate diagrams. 

Manage Your Time Effectively 

Finally, time management is critical when it comes to scoring well in O-Level Physics exams. Make sure you have a clear understanding of the exam format and the number of questions you will need to answer. Allocate your time wisely, making sure you leave enough time to tackle the more challenging questions. It’s also essential to practice answering questions under exam conditions, so you get used to working under pressure. Use past papers and timed practice tests to simulate exam conditions as closely as possible. 

In conclusion, O-Level Physics is a challenging subject, but by following these five essential tips, you can significantly improve your chances of scoring well in your exams. Remember to master the basics, practice regularly, focus on understanding, learn to draw clear and accurate diagrams, and manage your time effectively. With dedication and hard work, you can achieve excellent results in your O-Level Physics exams.

5 Uncanny Proofs Of Natural Selection

When a species continues to survive and thrive, that’s an example of natural selection. Those species that are unable to adapt will be consumed by nature in one form or another, and natural selection weeds out the weaker species or those that have a glaring weakness. Charles Darwin was the scientist that made the term ‘natural selection’ a famous one, and it’s part of the everyday vocabulary in current times.

There’s a wide range of examples when it comes to natural selection, from how an animal’s skin is colored to how strong a certain muscle group is. Today, we’ll be taking a look at some of the most uncanny proofs of natural selection and how they’ve allowed certain species to be near the top of the food chain today.


When it comes to non-human animals that are a glaring example of natural selection, look no further than the giraffe. Darwin was fascinated by giraffes, which at one point were much smaller animals. Those with longer necks were able to survive longer and reproduce more, and each generation of giraffes became larger with longer necks. This allowed them to reach food at higher levels and the line has continued.

In the 1990s, scientists discovered the bones of a strange creature that had a thick skull and was the size of a larger sheep. It turns out that the giraffe evolved from this creature, which is why you still see giraffes headbutt each other as the skulls have remained relatively the same. However, with the long necks, it’s quite a show to see two giraffes go at it.


For ants, the colony is everything, and they’ll do whatever they can to make sure that their colony is protected. Warrior ants are a big part of the colony, and they carry a chemical signal that alerts other ants they may not have seen before to not attack them. This works well when these ants end up being in the same colony, but natural selection has allowed some ants to take advantage of this.

Some of the warrior ants know how to imitate chemical signals from other colonies. This allows them to invade fully unnoticed and start to take down a colony from the inside out. When it was first discovered, the organ that produces this chemical was originally thought to be a rather useless one, but it turns out to be the most important for an ant’s evolution.


Camouflage is one of the best examples of natural selection, and it has helped many species survive over the years from the chameleon to the praying mantis. There are dozens of animals that use camouflage to either stave off predators or find food when out on a hunt. One of the neatest examples is the arctic fox with its white coat of fur which is able to blend in perfectly with its snowy landscape.

Birds, insects, and fish are among the creatures that have the most species that are able to camouflage. From being able to blend in with trees to the desert sand, it’s paramount for animals to hide their location from others.


To continue your bloodline in the peacock world, you have to have some really tall and colorful feathers. If it seems that peacocks are more colorful now than when you were a child, it’s because they are. With every generation of peacocks, they become more sensational to look at since the feathers are used for mating calls.

Female peacocks search out the males that have the biggest and brightest feathers possible. Because of this, natural selection has weeded out those with duller feathers. What’s interesting is that the feathers really serve no other function than to attract mates. However, peacocks aren’t exactly interested in what another’s favorite movie is or their personality type. It’s all about the feathers.

Green Anole Lizard

The green anole lizard and brown anole lizard have been at odds with one another for longer than most of us could even realize. The green type of lizard arrived in the United States first, settling in an ecosystem in Florida. Though both native to the Bahamas, the green anole lizard became comfortable in Florida, but the brown anoles soon made their way to the Sunshine State.

For green anoles, brown anoles are very invasive, and natural selection happened quickly. The green anoles who had more scales and larger toepads began mating, and within just a decade or so, natural selection allowed the species to adapt to the point where they could reach higher elevations for food than the invasive brown anoles.

What Do Scientific Studies Say About How Many Reps And Sets You Should Do?

When you’re starting a workout plan, you’re going to hear a countless amount of advice from people on how to do things perfectly. You’ll get tips on how much weight you need to start with, how many reps you need to do, and how many sets. This information will likely pertain to whether you’re trying to lose weight and fat, or if you’re trying to add muscle mass. Either way, many people will give you a determined amount of sets and reps based on their personal experiences.

While all of this personal advice may end up helping you out in the long run, not every good plan will work for every individual. What if there were scientific studies that showed how much you should be doing? Let’s take a look at what the studies have shown throughout the years and see if it develops the right plan for you.


Obviously, if you’re a beginner at lifting weights, you aren’t going to want to jump into the highest weights that you can possibly lift to start setting your personal record. Instead, there are studies that show that any beginner (lifting for less than 12 months) should start off with much lighter weights. This means that you should comfortably be able to perform 15 reps for each set without feeling pain.

At this point, your body is building a solid base to allow you to build up the strength required to even attempt these higher weights. You don’t want to begin to tear these muscle fibers before you even get going. Not only will you find yourself building strength without pushing yourself too hard, but you’ll see results in your body that make you want to continue to lift weights.

As for sets, you’ll want to do no more than three per muscle group. When you’re starting off from day one, doing just one set of 12 reps would be a good way to build a base. Over the course of the next few weeks and months, you can build up your strength to the point where you’re doing three sets of 15 reps for each muscle group.

Arizona State University conducted a large study that showed that the intensity should be at 60 percent of what you can lift at maximum when at the beginner level. After 12 months, you graduate to the advanced level where you can work out at 80 percent of your maximum with each set and rep.


Let’s say that you’ve been lifting for 12 months and feel good, with your body looking and feeling much stronger. You’re ready to take the next step, but you don’t want to overdo it according to the studies. As we mentioned, you should be working out at 80 percent of your maximum to continue to strengthen the muscle that you’ve built over the past year.

When it comes to the reps and sets, that number does indeed change. Instead of focusing on 12-15 reps per set, the number should be reduced to about six to eight reps, with the same one to three sets for each muscle group. The most advanced lifters will be able to do up to six sets when they’ve really gotten used to doing four or five sets per muscle group.

Muscle Groups

Studies show that there should be at least 48 hours in between muscle groups getting worked out. That means that each week, there should be two to three days per muscle group, but science says that the upper body should come one day, with the lower body coming the next day, then a day of rest or light cardio activity.

Don’t forget to try out different exercises for each muscle group, too. Muscle confusion is a good way of helping to build that muscle while burning fat, studies show. You don’t want to do bench presses or squats every single day as your body will get used to the exercises and it will be hard to improve upon while also increasing the chances of injury.


While the studies show the most effective ways in general, that doesn’t mean it’s going to be the absolute best for everyone. As we mentioned in the intro, every body is different, and everyone will have different results from their workout. Make sure to do what feels comfortable for you while also getting results, and you’ll be enjoying your transition from beginner to advanced in no time.

How Does Ageing Affect Learning? The Facts About Neuroplasticity

Not long ago, researchers thought the brain finished developing in adulthood. Lost brain cells wouldn’t be replaced. And “you can’t teach old dogs new tricks,” or so the story went. Cognitive decline was believed inevitable. But Science is revealing a more positive picture.

You can make new brain cells all the time. You can improve memory, learning, and thinking as you age thanks to “neuroplasticity”. But doing so isn’t a given.

What Is Neuroplasticity?

Neuroplasticity is the ability of the nervous system to alter and re-organize itself based on outside stimuli and internal input. This means the brain can form new connections, improve function, and even recover after injury (e.g., physical trauma, severe depression, epilepsy, or stroke).

The brain can adapt. It can learn and repair itself. And there’s no expiry date on this possibility. Neuroplasticity can be confirmed through imaging and substantial improvements in learning and other brain functions.

How Does Neuroplasticity Work?

The hippocampus continues to produce neurons through a process called “neurogenesis”. This can continue not only into adulthood but into advanced age. These “brain cells” move where they’re needed. They then build pathways in the brain that carry messages.

These messages could be anything from how to catch a ball to how to perform complicated mathematical calculations. When you learn something, you form a connection between these neurons. When you repeat that activity, you reinforce the connection.

That action can even become automatic through repetition. This is how professional athletes develop lightening fast reflexes. It’s how good and bad habits form.

That is why riding a bike feels second nature after you do it for a while. These neuron pathways are the physical structures that make learning possible. They form, dissolve, and can even re-route themselves.

How Can Ageing Impact Neuroplasticity?

As a general rule, younger people are more neuroplastic. But researchers aren’t sure if it’s due to the nature of the brain or the environment you live in. It’s probably both. But nature (natural aging) may not have as big a role as scientists once thought.

Just think about how much new stuff you had to learn every day from birth to around 25. As we age, we are no longer forced to learn constantly. You may have fewer new experiences. You have had the same friends for years. You don’t have any big exams to study for. You may not actively learn new things if you don’t have to.

You spend a lot of time re-enforcing the pathways you already have rather than forming new ones. 

So, you’re not forming as many new pathways in the brain as you once were. This may instruct the brain to stop producing so many new neurons because you don’t need them. This makes it harder to learn new things as you age. You may feel stuck in your ways.

Improve Neuroplasticity At Any Age

These activities have been shown to keep the brain learning and growing into advanced age:

  1. Always find something new to learn.
  2. Play video games. Don’t stick with one kind. Continuously learn new games and become good at them.
  3. Seek out new experiences.
  4. Start a creative hobby.
  5. Meet new people and spend more time with the people you love.
  6. Eat a healthy diet with lots of whole plants, nuts, and fish.
  7. Get enough sleep.
  8. Exercise regularly.
  9. Practice good stress management.
  10. Actively replace bad habits with health-promoting ones.

How to Balance a Chemical Equation

A foundational skill in the field of chemistry, balancing chemical equations is essential to understanding chemical reactions. The atoms and molecules of chemicals often recombine into other molecules. Chemical equations show this recombination using the symbols of various periodic elements and their numerical amounts.

For example, the burning of propane to create water and carbon dioxide can be depicted as: C3H8 + O2 H2O + CO2. Representing a transformative chemical change, the arrow symbol in this chemical equation acts very much like the equal sign (=) in the traditional mathematical equation.

Because matter cannot be created or destroyed, chemical equations must contain the same number of atoms on each side. You can use different techniques to balance a simple chemical equation, but a traditional balancing process takes just a few steps.

1. Record the number of atoms for each element

Elements without a subscript exist as a single atom. Otherwise, the subscript indicates the number of atoms for that element. Using the provided chemical equation as your guide, record the number of atoms for each element. First, do this for the left (pre-change) side of the equation. Then, do it for the right (post-change) side of the equation. To balance the equation C3H8 + O2 H2O + CO2, you should list C=3, H=8, and O=2 for the left side and C=3, H=2, and O=7 for the right side. It may be helpful to list this information in two vertical columns so that each element sits beside its counterpart on the other side of the equation.

2. Save the most common elements for last

With your two coordinated columns in place, you are ready to add coefficients to balance your equation. However, you should approach this process strategically. For easier balancing, you will want to save extremely common elements, such as hydrogen and oxygen, for last. Because hydrogen and oxygen are present in so many molecules, you are quite likely to encounter them on both sides of your equation.       

 3. Start with single elements

Check your chemical equation for single elements that have no subscripts. If you find any, this is the best place to start the balancing process. Begin with any single elements that appear on both sides of the equation and then move on to those that appear on one side or the other. In the case of C3H8 + O2 H2O + CO2, you should balance the single carbon atom first.

4. Use coefficients to balance your equation

Because there are three carbon atoms on the left side of the equation C3H8 + O2 H2O + CO2 and there is only a single carbon atom on the right, you must add a coefficient of 3 to the right side in order to balance this element. To record this coefficient, place it in front of the carbon dioxide (CO2) molecule to triple it. Now that you have three carbon dioxide molecules, you not only have a total of 3 carbon atoms on the right side of your equation, but you have increased the total number of oxygen atoms to 7. With your carbon atoms balanced at 3 on both sides of your equation, you are now ready to move on to your hydrogen atoms. Because you can add coefficients but never change molecular subscripts, you must add a coefficient of 4 to your water (H2O) molecule on the right side of your equation. Now you are balanced with 8 hydrogen atoms on both sides. However, you must also add three oxygen atoms to the right side of your equation to make a total of 10. Finally, you must balance the number of oxygen atoms in your equation. This means adding a coefficient of five to the oxygen (O2) on the left side of your equation. Now, every element on both sides of your equation has an equal number of atoms!

5 Hobby Microscopes for Beginners

Whether you need a microscope for a class or simply to use for fun, you’ll need to make sure you invest in a model that will suit your needs. Microscopes for beginners can be plastic toys or they can be fully functional tools. Learning more about microscopes can help you choose the right model for your needs and make the most of your investment.

What Type of Microscope is Best for a Beginner?

There are two different types of microscopes to choose from; stereo and compound. The main difference between the two is the amount of magnification offered and the types of things the microscope can examine. Choose a microscope based on the things your child most wants to explore.

Stereo Microscopes: This type of microscope offers lower magnification, usually from 10-40x; it can be used to examine samples of all types. Pretty much anything that is interesting and will fit on the platform can be used. If your child wants to examine coins, feathers, rocks, toys and other items that are not prepared slides, a stereo microscope like the one below is a good choice.  Astereo microscope shows off items at up to 30 times their actual size, making it easy for curious kids to examine and learn.

Compound Microscopes: A compound microscope works with much smaller samples and slides and is what most of us think of when we hear the word “microscope”. Choosing a compound microscope is essential if your child or teen wants to look at slides or very tiny items. Compound microscopes like the one below offer greater magnification and work with pre-made slides or slides you prepare yourself. Most compound microscopes offer magnification up to 1000x, and are ideal for a student taking a class in biology.

Digital Microscopes: Aside from determining the type of microscope you need, you should also consider how the microscope will be used. Do you want to be able to see the results on a screen or save them to a tablet or device? Then a digital microscope like the one below may be best for you.

Stereo vs. Compound Microscopes for Beginners

As long as you get a quality microscope, both types are ideal for kids. The main difference is the amount of magnification and the types of items you can view. Choose the type of microscope based on what your child needs for school or the objects they most want to learn about.

Microscopes for Beginners – Choose a Quality Microscope for Best Results

Some kids microscopes are designed to be toys or novelty items; when you select on to use for science class or exploration, choose one that is designed with that purpose in mind. Toy microscopes may have a similar look but won’t be as user friendly or yield the best results. A few things to keep in mind when you choose a microscope for a beginner:

  • Avoid flimsy, lightweight plastic models; the scope should feel heavy for its size.
  • Any microscope branded with a character or theme is likely a toy and not going to yield good results. 
  • Adjustable dials and settings make it easy to get a good view of a variety of items.
  • A microscope for adults may be a better choice and value than one labeled “for kids”.
  • Look for magnification up to 1000x – any higher and you may not get the clarity you need to fully explore an item or slide.

Choosing a Microscope for a Beginner

Think about what you want to use the microscope for and what level of magnification you need before you go shopping.  Comparing both the actual microscope and any extras and additions it comes with can help you get the best possible value from your purchase. Thinking about both your current needs and how you may use the piece in the future will also help you choose the right microscope for you and your family. 

5 Common Misunderstandings About Physics

Physics, the science that we’re taught from a young age and get reminded of on a daily basis. We think we know some of the broader points of physics, especially because we’re taught equations as early as kindergarten. However, there are some things that we think that we know, but only actually have most or just part of the story. There are plenty of common misunderstandings and misconceptions surrounding physics. Here are five of the most common that we see on a daily basis.

5. Space = No Gravity

When we think of space, we tend to think that there isn’t any gravity. After all, movies and television shows often refer to ‘zero gravity’ when flying through space. However, there has to be some amount of gravity in all places, and that includes outer space. If there weren’t gravity in space, there would be no orbiting anything. Though the gravity is very minimal, it’s still there. Gravity becomes weaker with distance, which is why it’s lower on planets that are farther from the sun.

4. The Sun’s True Color

Though you should never look directly at the sun, the common thought is that the color is that of a pure yellow or orange. However, the sun doesn’t really have one particular true color. In fact, “The entire sun and all of its layers are glowing,” says professor Christopher Baird of West Texas A&M. “The ‘color of the sun’ is the spectrum of colors present in sunlight, which arises from a complex interplay of all parts of the sun.” With that said, the color of the sun appears to be white since it has all colors.

3. Objects in Motion

We’ve all heard that objects in motion stay in motion. After all, this is a law of physics that was founded by Sir Isaac Newton. There’s a little more to it than that, though. Objects that are in motion will stay in motion at the same speed until they are stopped or slowed down by an unbalanced force. Force isn’t actually needed to maintain speed, which may be a misconception because we spend most of our lives on foot or in cars where don’t really see that aspect of motion.

2. Mass vs. Weight

Often in conversation, you’ll hear people say that mass and weight are the exact same thing. It’s even in the name ‘body mass index’ where we find out our general health from using our weight under the name of mass. However, mass and weight don’t have identical meanings. Mass, by definition, is the amount of matter that an object contains. Weight, on the other hand, is the force that it exerts gravitationally. So, yes, when you are dieting you are losing both mass and weight. However, if you were on Pluto you would weigh much less while still having the same mass.

1. Black Holes

You’ve probably seen dozens of black holes in science fiction by this point, but they’re all just educational guesses as to what they actually look like. The truth is, we have no clue what a black hole truly looks like. They could be large enough to just barely eclipse the sun, or they could be millions of times larger. Let’s just say that it’s a good thing that nobody knows what the inside of a black hole looks like, because it’s probably not good.

The Life Electrical: 5 Essential Electronic Circuits Facts For Beginners

Building electronic circuits is a really cool hobby – not only does it teach problem solving and allow you to make something with your hands, but you get to understand more about the world around you. As a bonus, you can learn to make cool gadgets like transistor radios, walkie talkies, torches, and maybe even your own burglar alarm. We thought we’d make this quick run down for beginners, so you can learn about some fundamentals before you get started.

1. Component of an Electronic Circuit

An electronic circuit is an electrical pathway that contains 5 electronic components in various arrangements to manage the flow of electricity. 

  • Capacitors can store electricity along the way as voltage. When you activate it, it releases that energy at 90% of the speed of light.
  • Resistors can slow it down to reduce the voltage. Energy flows through them in one direction. As energy flows through the resistor, it creates “resistance,” which dissipates some of the energy from the circuit. The smaller the resistor, the greater the resistance it creates.
  • Diode is a one-way ticket for electricity. Pass through the diode, and you can never go back. 
  • Transistor is conductive but can stop the current. It acts as a gateway that you open or close on command.
  • Inductors can also store electricity but as a magnetic field.

Among these, you have circuit nodes. A circuit node is something that connects two components, like an insulated wire. 

Your electronic circuit will also need an energy source and an energy-needing object on the other end receiving electricity to do something.

2. Voltage

Your voltage measures the amount of energy gained or lost between two components (resistors, capacitors, etc.) on your circuit when you move a unit of positive charge from one component to another. So voltage is always relative to the two points.  

When you connect multiple components, your voltage is the sum across all your components.

3. Current

The current is the rate your energy flows through your electronic circuit. Your spacing and choice of components impact this rate.

If multiple components are on your electronic circuit, you must make sure each one of them can carry the same current.

4. Resistance

The ratio between your voltage and current is called resistance. If the voltage is moving across a conductor like a wire, it moves in a linear fashion. 

However, a component like a diode or a transistor will make the energy move in a non-linear way. The component dissipates some of the energy.

This is known as a Joule per second (J/s), or a Watt in more everyday terms. 

5. Grounding

A ground is a circuit node that acts as a reference point for all other circuit voltages that can be referenced. 

A voltage source has both a positive and negative terminal (end). In positive electronic circuits, the negative end is connected to the grounding circuit. This creates energy flow from positive to negative. That flow travels through your components to reach the ground.

An electronic circuit can also have a virtual ground, which is a circuit node that acts like a ground but isn’t connected to the power supply. So the energy moves toward it without returning to the power source. 

Building Your Electronic Circuit

With these fundamentals, you can now begin building simple electronic circuits. Add components to your circuit and measure your results to learn to manage the flow of energy through your circuit.